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MANGYAN APPROPRIATE SCHOOL:  A COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT  EXPERIMENT
Project Directors:        Carmelita Quebengco (Education Component)
                                    and Zenaida Sierra UPLB-PESAM (Agriculture Component), Percy Sajise (Co-Project Director)
Funding Agency:        The Ford Foundation

The project was a response to the request of the community leaders of the Pundasyon Hanunuo Mangyan, Inc. (PHM) for an elementary education program that is culturally appropriate and available in their area.

The community leaders coursed their request through the Philippine Association for Intercultural Development, which in turn sought the help of DLSU through the Participatory Uplands Management Program (PUMP) of the Research Center.

Among others, the project had the goals of: a) providing the target population with a culturally appropriate education program in line with an overall objective of helping build up community self-management capabilities; b) assessing the feasibility of participatory development in the planning, implementation, and evaluation phases of the school project; and c) achieving school self-sufficiency through applied upland agricultural education and production.

Key words:  Hanunuo Mangyan, elementary education, culturally appropriate education, community self-management, participatory development

 

CASE STUDIES OF SELECTED PLANNED PARENTHOOD AND WOMEN'S DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS OF THE FAMILY PLANNING ORGANIZATION OF THE PHILIPPINES
Project Director:          Exaltacion C. Ramos
Funding Agency:        Family Planning Organization of the Philippines

In these studies, six projects in five provincial areas in the Philippines were looked into to achieve the following specific goals of: a) obtaining insights into the process of development that each project has undergone from the time of initial implementation up to the present; b) determining the community’s perception and level of participation in the project; c) identifying factors that may have led to the success or failure of the project (a possible indicator is whether the project has attained its stated objective); and d) providing a census of problems that may need the urgent attention of the national office.

The six projects were funded by different grants from the international office. The primary objective of the PPWD program, especially the Women in Development Training Program (WINTRAP), was to train a pool of women leaders who can organize and mobilize the resources in the community to promote population/family planning activities that are integrated with a development program—specifically, an income-generating project.

The introduction of an income generating project (IGP) as an incentive to women volunteers was a positive factor in arousing the interest of community members in family planning education and a motivation campaign. However, it failed to be an agent in sustaining the involvement of the women in the project through its duration.  In some cases, the ICP eventually produced a negative impact on community work—women who failed to repay seed money tended to disengage themselves from the organization.  In other cases, however, the communities mentioned a positive and supportive attitude toward FPOP as a result of such projects.

Key words: Planned parenthood and women’s development, women leaders, resource mobilization, income generation

 

BUILDING PEOPLE INTO FORESTRY/PROCESS DOCUMENTATION RESEARCH ON BFD-UDWG PILOT PARTICIPATORY UPLAND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN MINDORO
Project Director:          Ma. Elena Chiong-Javier
Funding Agency:        Bureau of Forest Development-Upland Development Working Group

This study undertakes a detailed documentation of the Mindoro Pilot Project to provide dynamic feedback on the processes of project implementation.  It has for its objectives the following: 1) to document the activities of the BFD field personnel and the upland farmers, as well as the activities of the field workers of participating agencies of institutions; 2) to document the issues and problems that emerge from the implementation of the pilot project; and 3) to derive lessons from the pilot experiences that can help build or improve the BFD’s capacity to implement participatory approaches in upland development.

Key words: Bureau of Forest Development, upland farmers, participatory approaches in upland development

 

HEALTH AND NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS AND THE UTILIZATION OF HEALTH SERVICES: THE SITUATION AMONG PRESCHOOLERS IN DEPRESSED METRO MANILA COMMUNITIES
Project Directors:        Pilar Ramos-Jimenez and Ma. Elena Chiong-Javier
Funding Agency:        United Nations Children's Fund and National Economic Development Authority

The project aimed to assess the health and nutritional problems of preschoolers in four depressed communities in Metro Manila, their antecedents, and the available health resources and their utilization. The ultimate goal of the project was to link up with relevant agencies in the formulation of appropriate community-based health intervention strategies.

Specifically, the study aimed to: a) determine the health and nutritional problems of preschoolers (0-6 years old); b) relate the socio-economic and demographic factors to the preschoolers’ health and nutritional problems; c) identify the health services, both static and itinerant, available in the depressed communities, particularly those that affect the preschoolers’ welfare; d) determine the delivery system for both the preventive and curative health services, the difficulties encountered in their utilization, and the extent to which they are linked to the current health and nutritional status of the preschoolers; and e) propose alternative strategies to improve the health service delivery system.

The research findings showed that the pre-schoolers from the depressed Metro Manila communities came from large households, with young migrant parents whose incomes are barely sufficient to provide their families with the basic necessities of life.  The poor health and nutritional status of pre-schoolers can be attributed to insufficient and inappropriate weaning food, minimal protection from communicable illnesses, congested and unsanitary environment, and inadequate water and toilet facilities. The findings indicated potentials for participation in health care and delivery projects by community residents, particularly mothers.

Key words: health and nutritional problems of preschoolers, depressed communities, health resources and utilization, intervention strategies

 

ECONOMIC TRANSACTIONS IN THE UPLANDS: THE SALE OF BANANA
AND GOLD BETWEEN THE IRAYA AND THE TAGALOG

Project Directors:        Pilar Ramos-Jimenez and Ma. Elena Chiong-Javier
Funding Agency:        International Development Research Centre

The study focused on the commodity and labor exchanges between the Iraya Mangyan and the Tagalog (non-Mangyan uplanders and lowlanders) in San Teodoro, Mindoro Oriental. Specifically, it aimed to understand 1) how the Iraya households mobilize their resources for the exchange; b) who are the Iraya’s exchange partners, including role functions and perceptions and network of interpersonal relationships; c) what is the flow of commodity and labor exchange, including credit and marketing channels; d) what are the economic and non-economic advantages derived by the Iraya from the exchange, including problems encountered and their resolutions; and e) what are the effects of the exchange on the Iraya households’ organization, decisions, practices, motivations, perceptions, and aspirations related to consumption and production.

The major findings of the study on the household level indicated that the Iraya and the Tagalog have remained poor despite efforts to harness the land and mineral resources found in their environment. Findings on the community level showed that the two main economic activities of the Iraya and Tagalog households affected their upland community in at least four areas, namely: population redistribution, land and forest use and conservation, economic and social interaction, and linkage between upland and lowland markets.

The sale of farm products, particularly banana, and of gold increased the contact between the Iraya and the Tagalog. The economic transactions in the uplands enabled the uplanders to acquire cash needed in the household. It also provided them access to credit through the Tagalog storeowners. Credit extension encouraged the development of a kind of patron-client relationship between the Iraya and the Tagalog storeowners. This encouraged the formation of incipient ritual alliances between the two groups but at the same time developed an unaccustomed indebtedness on the Irayas part.

Key words: commodity and labor exchange, resource mobilization, credit and marketing channels, economic transactions

 

PARTICIPATORY UPLAND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM (PHASE 2)
Project Directors:        Rosemary M. Aquino (Jan-Jun ’84); Trinidad S. Osteria (Jul ’84-Dec ’85)
Funding Agency:        The Ford Foundation

In January 1984, the second phase of the Participatory Uplands Management Program (PUMP Phase II) was initiated, with particular focus on researches aimed at improving knowledge on upland communities, action-oriented strategies, and evaluation of development efforts. Problem areas were identified such as education, community resource management, bureaucratic reorientation, health and nutrition, poverty/equity, women and children, population, law and economics. Furthermore, activity areas included research methodologies, research dissemination and utilization, process documentation, monitoring, and evaluation/impact research.

Key words: participatory uplands management, upland communities, action-oriented strategies, development efforts, research dissemination

 


 

 

 

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