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REVIEW OF PAST AND PRESENT MANGYAN ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS BY GOVERNMENT AGENCIES, RELIGIOUS-ORIENTED ORGANIZATIONS, AND PRIVATE VOLUNTEER GROUPS IN THE PROVINCE OF MINDORO ORIENTAL
Research Director:      Angelito P. dela Vega
Funding Agency:        PUMP/The Ford Foundation

The general objective of this study was to identify, document, and analyze the various Mangyan Assistance Programs vis-à-vis projects and/or activities by government agencies, religious-oriented organizations, and private volunteer groups, with the end-in-view of undertaking summative impact evaluation in relation to development strategies utilized in concept-making, program planning, and field implementation.

The study undertook a documentary review of the Mangyan Development Advisory Council in Oriental Mindoro.  Specifically, it aimed to: a) conduct an inventory of all existing Mangyan-oriented development programs and/or projects being run by member-agencies of the Mangyan Development Advisory Council; b) determine and analyze the processes and strategies utilized by the Mangyan Development Advisory’s member agencies in implementing its objectives related to provision of land tenure security, enhancement of livelihood, and provision of health services and education; and c) determine the strengths and weaknesses of the implementation strategies and to suggest alternative approaches.

Key words: Mangyan assistance programs, impact evaluation, development strategies, Mangyan Development Advisory Council, land tenure security

 

PROCESS DIAGNOSIS OF THE COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT WORKING GROUP
Project Directors:        Florante Henson and Erlinda Henson
Funding Agency:        Ministry of Agriculture

The main objective of the project was to maximize the Ministry of Agriculture (MA) working group’s productivity through a strategy called process diagnosis.

Specifically, the project intended to a) monitor the group process during discussion meetings of the working group; b) provide regular feedback to increase the group’s effectiveness in the discussion of pertinent issues related to the community management of the farming systems; c) stimulate group members to engage in periodic self-assessment/evaluation; and d) encourage the group to maximize tasks and the pursuit of its long-range goals.

The study utilized five major approaches in data-gathering: structured observation, participant observation, unstructured interviews, questionnaires, and examination of written documents.

The written output (report) for this project was organized into three major sections.  The first section traces the development of the DCMS-WG from its inception to its current state and situates it within the context of the bigger project, the Rainfed Resources Development Project, of which it is a part. The next section presents the most salient issues/concerns that were raised by members of the working group, either singly or collectively, and examines the eventual fate of these issues (whether these were resolved or not). The last section zeroes in on the learning experiences that the working group had undergone across time, particularly in terms of its reactions to the process diagnosis feedback that it had been receiving through the interim reports.

Key words: process diagnosis, community management systems, farming systems, self-assessment/evaluation

 

CASE STUDIES OF SELECTED BASIC CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES
IN THE PHILIPPINES

Project Director:          Jesusa M. Marco
Funding Agency:        The Asia Foundation

This collaborative research undertaking of three schools (i.e., Asian Institute of Management, Ateneo de Manila University, and De La Salle University), commissioned by the Bishops-Businessmen’s Conference, primarily aimed to study the nature and quality of community participation in selected Basic Christian Communities (BCCs).

Designed as an exploratory-formulative research, the study utilized a multi-method approach to arrive at complete, thorough, and accurate case studies of each BCC.

The BCCs covered were chosen from a list of predetermined existing BCCs in the Philippines (representing Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao). They were identified geographically and tentatively categorized into three BCC typologies, namely: Liturgical, Developmental, and Transformative, which were further classified either as rural or urban. Each school selected, by consensus, six BCCs that they were to cover. The six BCCs for the DLSU study were a) Mendez, Cavite; b) Cabcaben, Bataan; c) Alcantara, Cebu; d) Kidapawan, North Cotabato; e) Palo, Leyte; and f) Santiago, Isabela.

On the whole, the findings indicated that the BCCs studied were made up of ordinary people—i.e., workers, farmers, the unemployed, students, housewives—who are bound by some common physical space. Hence, to facilitate their participation, basic units of structure were established, e.g., the Kapitbahayan (10 to 15 households) for Mendez, “Family Grouping” (8 to 10 families) for Kidapawan, Pastoral Council (for a barangay/sitio) for Cabcaben, the core group for Leyte.

In general, there was a “positive” dissatisfaction among the “active” respondents in the case communities. There was a generally positive attitude toward the BCC programs. At the same time, this attitude was accompanied by an expressed desire for the BCC programs to improve further their task of building communities in which everyone can live fully as Christians.

Key words: Basic Christian Communities, community participation, exploratory-formulative approach, kapitbahayan, Family Grouping, Pastoral Council

 

THE LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF THE PHILIPPINES PROJECT TO EVALUATE TEN YEARS OF THE BILINGUAL EDUCATION PROGRAM: POLICY MONITORING AND GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES AND THE COMMUNITY
Research Director:      Judy Carol Sevilla
Funding Agency:        National Economic and Development Authority

This project aimed to determine the level of awareness, perception, and utilization of the Bilingual Education Program by government agencies and the community at large, as well as the factors accounting for the differentials obtained.

The methodology included carrying out of interviews among selected representatives of government agencies (Ministries, Surian ng Wikang Pambansa, Professional Regulations Commission, Civil Service Commission) and the community (parents, media, social organizations and various other domains). Both the respondents from these agencies/organizations and the community were drawn through purposive sampling.

Based on the study, it was found that the majority of the respondents were aware that English and Pilipino are used as media of instruction in our schools, but they are not knowledgeable about the BEP objectives and specific implementation measures.  English, rather than Pilipino, was found to still be the favored medium of instruction, especially at the college level, because of perceived occupation demands.

While English was the official language of business, science, technology and the professions, Pilipino or Taglish was utilized among the middle and lower echelons, for friendly or intimate discussions, and for communication at the grassroots level.

A national language is essential for the development of Filipinos’ national identity; yet, the majority of respondents believed that Filipinos can be nationalistic even without speaking Pilipino.

Various factors accounted for the differences in level of awareness, perception and utilization of the BEP/bilingualism.  These fell under school-related factors, geographical factors, occupation-related factors, and others. These elements also acted as either facilitators or obstacles in the implementation of the BEP and the practice of English-Pilipino bilingualism.

Key words: Bilingual Education Program, policy monitoring, Linguistic Society of the Philippines, national language, bilingualism

 

WOMEN AS WEAVERS:  FEMALE ARTISTIC PRODUCTION
IN A TRADITIONAL PHILIPPINE SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT

Project Directors:        Judy Freya Sibayan and Marian Roces
Funding Agency:        United Board of Christian Higher Education in Asia

As a new approach to textile scholarship, Women as Weavers is treated as part of a vast integrity and not as an entity separate from large systems of knowledge.  Instead of dividing the subject matter according to the involvement of textiles in various domains (e.g., textiles and rituals, textiles and economic systems), a holistic presentation has been used to de-emphasize the separation of lived experience into disjoint categories.  Chapter 1 (Object) discusses the textiles in terms of technical and aesthetic integrities.  Chapter 2 (Word) discusses the spread of textile-related vocabularies all over the archipelago to substantiate the integrities discussed in Chapter 1.  Chapter 3 (Myth) integrates words and objects in myth.  Chapter 4 (Ritual) finally proposes large integrated systems of knowledge as expressed in ritual.

The study ultimately validates a holistic approach to textile scholarship and shows that a taxonomy of motifs and a separation of domains are scholarly dead ends.  The language use aspect in relation to textiles is also employed as a key concept that is enlightening and indispensable as an area of knowledge.  The possible relationship of reptilian figures in textiles with concepts of life, fertility, regeneration, and institutions such as head-hunting is deemed most crucial.

Key words: female artistic production, textile scholarship, lived experience, language use, myth, ritual

 

RETURNING FILIPINO OVERSEAS CONTRACT WORKERS: THE CASE
OF BARANGAY VERGARA, METRO MANILA

Project Director:          Stella P. Go
Funding Agencies:      United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN-ESCAP)
                                   

This pilot project examined the psycho-social and economic dimension of return migration in one community in Metro Manila. Specifically, the study sought to: a) determine the possible adjustment and difficulties at the household and community levels; b) look into the job and income expectations of return migrants; c) determine skill acquisition and/or development overseas and their utilization upon return; and d) examine the use of remittances in relation to investment and consumption expenditures, and possible spill-over effects in the community.

Barangay Vergara is a crowded urban community located in the municipality of Mandaluyong. It has an area of 43 hectares. At the time of the study, it had a total of about 765 households and a population of about 4,991.

From the study it was found that economic reintegration was probably the major difficulty confronting the returning overseas contract worker. The economic problems facing the country at that time, as reflected in a high unemployment rate and scarcity of jobs, made the absorption of these workers difficult. While workers did acquire new skills abroad, their utility in the local context could not be determined by the study. Moreover, the pilot study indicated that the economic gains from overseas employment might be such that they could adequately meet only the basic needs of the worker and his family, particularly in the case of those who had a short overseas employment experience. Thus, virtually no one used the remittance for productive investment.

On the other hand, overseas employment did not seem to create problems of readjustment into the family and the community for the overseas contract worker.

Key words: overseas contract workers, return migration, skill acquisition, income expectation, use of remittances

 

COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION ON THE PROVISION OF BASIC HEALTH SERVICES IN A TRIBAL COMMUNITY IN THE PHILIPPINES
Project Director/s:          Trinidad S. Osteria (1st-2nd Term SY 1985-1986); Jonathan Okamura (3rd Term SY 1985-86 to April 1987); Pilar Ramos-Jimenez (3rd Term SY 1985-86 to December 1988)
Funding Agency:        International Development Research Centre

The main objective of this IDRC-funded operations research was to demonstrate the feasibility of a culturally appropriate health program that involved the tribal community of the Hanunuo Mangyan in the provision of basic health care services. Only two of the several sitios of this barangay were included in the study: Sitios Umabang and Bailan.

The project had four major phases.  For each phase, qualitative and quantitative research methods were utilized in data collection.

The first phase dealt with the procurement of baseline data to determine the existing health situation, the health sources available, health-seeking behavior, and beliefs concerning illness. The second phase was the formulation and implementation of the health program.  It included validation of data and planning of a community health program, training of health workers, construction of village health clinics, delivery of health services in the catchment areas and in the clinics, and linkage with the Rural Health Unit and the Department of Social Welfare.

The assessment or evaluation of the program was conducted on the third phase, noting the slight improvements in the environmental sanitation facilities and the villagers’ knowledge of the etiology of diseases.  While the management of illnesses remained largely traditional, a substantial number of villagers availed of the health services. There was a decline in the incidence of such diseases as respiratory ailments, skin disorders, anemia, malaria, and PTB, but a high rate of parasitism remained. 

During the last phase, community and health workers were trained to take over the management of the health program with the supervision of the Bulalacao Rural Health Unit.

The study raised issues on community participation and project sustainability, and forwarded recommendations on the sustenance and replication of the health program in similar health communities.   

Key words: Hanunuo Mangyan, culturally appropriate health program, tribal community, basic health care services

 


 

 

 

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