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ADULT EDUCATION PROJECT FOR MANGYAN COMMUNITY (PHASE 1)
Project Director:          Carmelita Quebengco
Funding Agency:        Laubach Literacy International

A non-formal adult education was made part of the Pundasyon Hanunuo Mangyan School (PHMS) to train community leaders and parents in areas that are deemed crucial to the development of the individual and the community.  It was also designed to allow Hanunuo adults to cope with their children’s education in terms of literacy skills, knowledge of agriculture and basic marketing of produce, health and sanitation, community organization, and knowledge of Philippine laws relative to tribal communities.  Accordingly, the non-formal education consists of six modules, namely Agriculture and Ecology, Basic Marketing and Farm Produce, Health and Sanitation, Functional Literacy and Numeracy, Community Organization, and Philippine Laws Governing Tribal Communities. As part of the non-formal education, two community leaders participated in an apprenticeship program on school management and administration.

Key words: Hanunuo Mangyan, adult education, literacy skills, school management and administration, Philippine laws relative to tribal communities

 

SOCIAL BENEFITS AND COSTS: PEOPLE’S PERCEPTIONS OF THE U.S. BASES IN THE PHILIPPINES
Project Directors:        Pilar Ramos-Jimenez and Ma. Elena Chiong-Javier
Funding Agency:        Hanns Seidel Foundation

The objectives of the study were to review and analyze the empirical literature on the social effects and issues of the U.S. military bases in the Philippines from 1978 to 1987; to determine the perceptions of selected key informants about certain issues pertaining to the bases; and to elicit some major implications for consideration in determining the future of the bases in the country.  The study was conducted in Olongapo and Angeles Cities, which played host to two large U.S. facilities in the country—Clark and Subic.

Interviews with selected key informants in Olongapo and Angeles Cities yielded the following perceptions:

(1) The bases were advantageous to the two cities largely because they brought about more jobs, created livelihood opportunities, and provided improved basic services, particularly on health.  On the other hand, the bases were also disadvantageous because they did not provide Filipino base employees with security of tenure, and their servicemen were perceived to be carriers of sexually transmitted diseases; (2) Over the ten-year period, situations observed in both cities resulting from the bases’ presence were changes in their demographic profile (i.e. high growth rate owing to the large number of migrants attracted by existing economic opportunities) and having to deal with problems of crime, housing shortage, and sexually transmitted diseases. (3) Both government and non-government organizations or agencies had individually or jointly addressed the various social/health problems, particularly by providing medical assistance or services to the poorer and more disadvantaged urban sectors, including hospitality girls, street children, and drug addicts; and (4) In the event that the bases were withdrawn, the government would have had to provide alternative livelihood opportunities to displaced residents.  It would also have had to have short and long term comprehensive development plans for immediate implementation.  However, if the government decided to retain the bases, the U.S. would have had to be asked to remit higher rental payments in exchange.

Key words: U.S. military bases, livelihood opportunities, sexually transmitted diseases, demographic profile, disadvantaged sectors

 

SOCIAL SOUNDNESS ANALYSIS OF THE PHILIPPINE RURAL ELECTRIFICATION PROJECT
Project Directors:        Robert C. Salazar and Irma C. Coronel
Funding Agency:        United States Agency for International Development

The study analyzed the socio-cultural feasibility, spread effects, and social costs and benefits of the proposed Rural Electrification Project.  The project sought to upgrade and strengthen the institutional and physical infrastructure of the existing rural electric cooperative system.

Analysis was based on secondary sources and on interviews conducted among key informants from the US Agency for International Development, National Electrification Administration (NEA), and Rural Electrification Cooperatives (RECs).

The study noted that the Project would be generally acceptable to most sectors affected by it, and has adequate provision for ensuring the spread and sustainability of benefits.  However, the viability of these efforts is seen to be contingent upon the RECs’ internal organization and functioning, their relations with local interest groups and the community as a whole, and the support and commitment that the government accords to the program.  Finally, the study suggests that the electrification program may have some impact only if it is implemented with adequate human and financial resources, linked to complementary projects in the area, and carried out in a developed area that will be able to support it.

Key words: Rural Electrification Project, institutional infrastructure, physical infrastructure, cooperative system, local interest groups


 

 

 

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