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EDUCATION FOR CULTURAL MINORITIES IN THE PHILIPPINES
Project Director:          Carmelita Quebengco
Funding Agency:        Benefactor

The Center’s Mangyan Appropriate School project sought to establish an elementary education program that would be appropriate to the needs, experiences, and aspirations of the Hanunuo Mangyan community and to help build the community’s capability to ultimately manage the school. The objectives of the “Education for Cultural Minorities” study were therefore to continue the implementation of a complete elementary education program within the three Hanunuo Mangyan communities served by the project; further refine the elementary education program so that it becomes more effective and appropriate to the needs of Mangyan communities; continue assisting the communities concerned in making the school self-sufficient and financially viable in the long term; and develop closer coordination and sharing of resources among communities and institutions concerned with the education of cultural communities.

Key words: Hanunuo Mangyan, elementary education, cultural minorities, financial viability

 

RAPID APPRAISAL OF HIGH RISK URBAN COMMUNITIES: THE CASE
OF PASIG, TAGUIG, AND KALOOKAN CITY

Project Director:          Exaltacion Lamberte
Funding Agency:        Health Education and Welfare Specialists, Inc.  (HEWSPECS)

As part of the beneficiary-assessment baseline study for the planned Urban Health and Nutrition Program of the Department of Health, the project assessed the high risk communities in the depressed urban poor areas in the municipalities of Pasig and Taguig, and the city of Kalookan—specifically, those areas assumed to be highly susceptible to health problems due to risk factors such as a) residents’ low socio-economic status, b) prevailing poor environmental and sanitation conditions, and c) limited access to basic facilities and public utilities.

Using a multi-method approach to data collection, the study assessed the communities using the following variables and indicators:  a) access to public and private health facilities; b) access to public and private educational facilities; c) access to drinking water; d) environmental and sanitation conditions; e) access to basic physical infrastructure such as roads; f) access to service institutions; g) housing density and materials; h) presence of government and non-government organizations (NGOs); i) presence of unkempt small children in the streets; and j) perceived employment of the residents.

There were 407 areas consistently listed as depressed areas in Metro Manila, involving a population of about 46 percent of the total population of the metropolis. The depressed areas studied, particularly those considered to be generally or totally blighted depressed barangays, did not have adequate access to basic services and service institutions.  Areas along the periphery of the city were found to benefit in some way from the accessibility of services extended to the relatively better-off portion of the barangay, which is usually the barangay proper or center of the community.

Recommendations submitted based on the study’s findings are for the strategy for the provision of a sustainable and effective health and nutrition program and services to include at least three important action and policy components:  a) a social policy that is concerned with the provision of essential preventive and curative health services, nutrition and family planning, especially intended for the deprived and vulnerable urban poor sector; b) an urban health policy that must deal with critical problems of the depressed areas such as water, toilet facilities, environmental sanitation, drainage system and decent shelter; and c) a policy related to the importance of beneficiary participation in carrying out the urban health and nutrition program.

Key words: high-risk communities, urban poor, sanitation, public utilities, health and nutrition programs, social policy

 

HEALTH AND NUTRITION STATUS OF AND HEALTH-SEEKING BEHAVIOR AMONG FAMILIES IN HIGH RISK URBAN COMMUNITIES
Project Director:          Exaltacion Lamberte
Funding Agency:        Department of Health

This research is a beneficiary assessment study aimed primarily at providing benchmark information necessary for planning and mapping out strategies for the Urban Health and Nutrition Program envisioned by the Department of Health. Using the family survey, direct observations, and life histories, this two-part study of 720 families from 15 depressed barangays in Taguig, Pasig and Kalookan determined the health and nutritional status of the urban poor, and their health-seeking and health service utilization behavior.  The mothers in each family were the main respondents in the study.

Based on the findings, most families were migrants from other areas, now residing in resettlement areas, near factories, in garbage dumpsites, and in rural areas. Majority of the families were moderately deprived.  Illness in the family is very common, with fever and flu topping the list.  The most vulnerable groups for illness were found to be children under six years of age, and mothers.

In terms of health-seeking behavior, visits to the doctor were positively and significantly related to individual attributes of the mother, institutional variables, and need. Six out of ten families visited the barangay health center, not only for curative but also for preventive care.  Families in general were aware of the different health-related programs and activities organized by the center and by various groups in the community. Majority of the mothers interviewed in this study were greatly interested in participating in the activities of the planned program.

Among the recommendations made by the study were that target groups of the program should be children below six years of age and mothers; the program should include projects and activities necessary in solving the health-related problems of the communities;  for effective health service delivery, it appeared practical and appropriate for the program to focus on the poorest and the most needy communities or even families; community participation and mobilization of residents as well as local officials must be maintained as an underlying principle in the implementation of the program; and the program must provide mechanisms for sustainability and continuity of the projects and activities even when funding stops.

Key words: urban health and nutrition, health-seeking and health service utilization, vulnerable groups, children, barangay health center

 

DATA COLLECTION AND RECORDING SYSTEM:  THE CASE OF THE HEALTH CENTERS IN THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION
Project Director:          Exaltacion Lamberte
Funding Agency:        Department of Health
           
The general objective of this study was to examine the experiences in health centers in the National Capital Region (NCR) concerning data collection and recording processes inherent in the Field Health Services Information System (FHSIS) of the Department of Health (DOH).  A sample of 116 health centers was obtained from Manila, Quezon City, Kalookan City, Pasay City, District 1 (Malabon, Navotas, and Valenzuela), District 2 (Marikina, Pasig, Pateros, and Taguig), District 3 (Makati, Mandaluyong, and San Juan), and District 4 (Las Piñas, Muntinlupa, and Parañaque).  A total of 441 health center personnel participated in the study.  Three data collection methods were used:  Face-to-face structured interviews, direct observation, and the use of secondary data.

Several factors affected the smooth and continuous implementation of the FHSIS program.  These were the: a) operating principle governing the end-users of FHSIS information; b) deviations in the procedure; c) distance between the personnel’s residence and place of work; d) mismatch of expectations as to who should collect and record data; and e) devolution of public health care services to the local government.

Data suggests that in general, they have manifested favorable responses and dispositions to the systems and its processes.  Several factors are related to the dispositions:  hazy procedures in the system; logistics; educational attainment of personnel, position, travel time, residence, location of health facility, and level of involvement in the tasks.

For smooth implementation of the FHSIS program, it was recommended that there should be adequate supplies and material; the multiple tasks of midwives and staff be re-examined for possible streamlining; a control mechanism in the data collection and recording system be established as part of the FHSIS system processes to ensure reliability of the data; more training be conducted to facilitate the acquisition of skills in data collection, handling, and recording; assistance provided by the student interns and youth volunteers be institutionalized and harnessed; and that there be a concerted effort on the part of health personnel to convince local officials about the importance of an information system in the program operations.

Key words: information systems, data collection and recording processes, public health care services, skills acquisition, program operations

 

EVALUATION OF THE USAID/PHILIPPINES DEVELOPMENT TRAINING PROJECT
Project Directors:        Irma Coronel and Mary Lou Onglatco
Funding Agency:        United States Agency for International Development

The purpose of this study was to conduct a process and product evaluation of the USAID/Philippines Development Training Project, a $2.5 M program for employees, entrepreneurs and owners of small-to-medium sized non-farm business enterprises.  Stufflebeams’ Content, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) evaluation model was employed as the framework of the study.  Sampling was two-tiered, with managerial and technical courses randomly sampled, and with at least 25 percent of the participants per course interviewed. 

From the study, a profile of the participants was provided, with particular attention given to gender percentage of trainees, educational attainment, sectors of industry participating, size of work force, and assets. An evaluation of the training programs was obtained in terms of the methods used in training, quality of facilitators, training objectives, needs of the trainees, and support received by the trainees in terms of training applications. The perception of supervisors of the trainees regarding the cost-sharing scheme was likewise obtained.

Project implementers and participants were asked about the strengths and weaknesses of the project, paying particular attention to the scope and coverage, design, management, implementation, training courses/strategies, training institution/facilitator, cost sharing scheme, difficulties encountered in project implementation, and impact of the project.

The study recommended that the project should be monitored closely in terms of developing guidelines for operations, screening field implementers, conducting formative evaluation, and establishing feedback mechanisms from field to contracting agency to funding agency. A thorough training needs analysis was likewise recommended to be conducted; an appropriate comprehensive program to be designed; the means to ensure project sustainability after donor pull-out to be identified; and finally a data base on training needs of the country, resources available to meet needs, and long-term courses of action to ensure continuation of human resource development in the countryside be established.

Key words: training program, managerial and technical courses, cost sharing scheme, operations guidelines, feedback mechanisms

 

NGOS AS DEVELOPMENT INTERMEDIARIES:  A FIELDWORK STUDY
OF FOUR NGOS IN THE DENR CONTRACT REFORESTATION PROGRAM

Researcher:               Jill Baldwin
Funding Agency:        Ford Foundation

Using a qualitative research approach, this fieldwork study explored the processes, problems, and outcomes of four purposively sampled non-government organizations (NGOs) participating in the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Contract Reforestation Program (CRP).  Selection of NGOs was based on the organization’s mission; rationale for establishing the organization; previous history of working with community groups; development approaches, strategies, and methodologies; and performance in the CRP.

With regard to NGO contractors, the study found that two of the four organizations in this study had experience in environmental and socio-economic grassroots development.  These two were community-based and encouraged the active participation of community members in the decision-making processes related to the program’s design, implementation, and maintenance. In all of the community sites in this study, the community residents stated they had no input in the choice of their contractor.

In terms of capacity building, two of the four NGOs in this study provided on-going and comprehensive development trainings, and worked directly with local community development organizations established by the NGOs prior to the DENR contract.The maintenance of CRP in communities was primarily dependent on either the participants’ commitment to the program or the availability of monies to pay laborers.

To accomplish the goals set forth in the Master Forestry Plan, it was recommended that the DENR examine and modify six primary areas within the department:  a) the use of predominantly numerical measurements and quantifiable targets and goals; b) temporal needs to produce sustainable results; ability to respond to the needs of “the people” and meet their commitments and obligations to the people; c) sharing control and ownership of participatory programs; d) redefining and adapting to their new role as program enablers, not just program initiators; and e) developing and utilizing the expertise and skills of the DENR Desk Officers for more proactive development activities.

Key words:  Reforestation, non-government organizations, grassroots development, community participation, decision-making processes

 

MANAGEMENT STUDIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN SUPPORT OF THE UPLAND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
Project Director:          Robert Salazar
Funding Agency:        Department of Environment and Natural Resources

In support of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources’ Upland Development Program (UDP), two projects were undertaken: 1) preparation of the final manuscript of the monitoring and evaluation manual or social forestry project, and 2) a study on the devolution of the Integrated Social Forestry Program (ISFP) to local government units (LGUs). The first project resulted in a manual that was used by the social forestry units of the DENR; results of the second study were used in formulating recommendations for possible integration of participatory approaches developed by the UDP in implementing social forestry projects.

Key words: social forestry, participatory approaches, social science research, upland development programs


 

 

 

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