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Academic Year >>> 1993-1994 Research Projects >>>  








































Project Director:          Alicia Manlagnit
Funding Agency:        Enfants Et Development (EED) Institut National d’Etudes Demographiques (INED)

This research project is an evaluation of the six-year experience of the Information Nutrition Action (INA) Foundation in the implementation of its intervention programmes. It determines the impact of two INA programme components—health and nutrition, and preschool education—as well as develops strategies and recommends actions to improve or sustain the INA programme impact on child health, nutrition and health education.

Key words:  Information Nutrition Action (INA) Foundation, health and nutrition, preschool education



Project Director:          Alicia B. Manlagnit
Funding Agency:        Save the Children Fund, UK; Save the Children Federation, US; Enfants et Developpement

The sustainability of community development programs remains an overriding concern of development practitioners, not only in the Philippines but also in other countries.  SDRC was commissioned to undertake a literature review, looking at the sustainability of community development programs implemented in the Philippines, focusing specifically on the areas of health, nutrition, and early childhood education.  The review seeks to clarify the theoretical issues and practical problems of developing sustainable community-based programs along the areas mentioned, in both urban and rural settings.

Insights gained from the literature review are intended to assist the funding agencies in the formulation of their development programs, as well as in the design of a sustainability study to be conducted.

The initial phase of the review was the identification of academic institutions, non-government organizations, and funding agencies involved in community development programs focusing on the areas of health nutrition, pre-school and livelihood.  The experiences of these groups served as the major content of the study.

From these varied experiences, the following specific areas were examined:  The experience of community financing schemes, the role of community organizing and community involvement in the sustainability of programs, as well as in institutional development, networking/linkages with government bodies and non-government agencies, and integration, which facilitate sustainability.  It also looked at socio-cultural factors that promote sustainability, and whether sustainability issues are different in the urban and rural setting.

Data collection methods included secondary data analysis and interviews with key informants.  The materials reviewed included published and unpublished articles and reports from academic institutions/agencies involved in community development programs.  Representatives from these various organizations and agencies served as key informants.

Key words: Philippine community development, health, nutrition, early childhood education, sustainable programs


Project Director:          Carmelita Quebengco
Funding Agency:        Benefactor

While the clamor among indigenous Filipinos for a more relevant, culture-specific basic education program continued to grow in the 1990s, the response was clearly lukewarm. This was perhaps brought about by the difficulties of introducing change within a very traditional, resource-strapped formal school system. There was therefore a need to make the introduction of school innovation easier and less threatening by studying the current situation more objectively, exploring possible innovation options, developing a more workable, reality-based model for curricular innovation, and organizing a center/office/group that can encourage and assist schools desirous of curricular reforms.

The study thus aimed to develop a work process model on curricular innovation for Philippine elementary schools servicing cultural communities and lay down the groundwork necessary for the establishment of a Philippine Center for Education of Indigenous Filipinos at DLSU. Specifically, the following tasks were accomplished: 1) identification of Philippine elementary schools, professionals, and para-professionals involved in the education of indigenous Filipinos, to serve as initial client-beneficiaries of a Philippine Center for Education of Indigenous Filipinos to be established at DLSU; 2) conduct of analysis and assessment of the conceptualization, planning and implementation of curricular innovations, particularly those involving the integration of client culture into the academic program in selected elementary schools servicing cultural communities; 3) determining of other relevant information including the strengths and needs of elementary schools servicing cultural communities, to form part of the body of data inputs for more appropriate curricular innovations; establishment of initial linkages with the Department of Education and Culture as well as identification of schools nationwide for future services to be rendered by the Philippine Center for Education of Indigenous Filipinos; and 5) proposal of a work-process model on the introduction of curricular innovation for Philippine elementary schools servicing cultural communities, and formulation of the rationale, goals and services to be rendered, and organizational structure of the proposed Philippine Center for Education of Indigenous Filipinos.

Key words:  Indigenous peoples, culturally appropriate education, curricular innovation


Project Director:          Exaltacion E. Lamberte
Funding Agency:        United Nations Fund for Population Activities through the National Statistics Office

This study looks at inequalities along the areas of health, education, security, shelter, and water and sanitation, in terms of three major structural variables: economic performance, gender and household headship, both at the regional and household levels. It attempts to provide an update on the disparities in the living standards of the Filipinos at the household and individual levels and to determine the existence of disparities according to some structural variables such as gender and socio-economic standing of the areas. It specifically aims to a) determine the extent of disparities in the living standards of the houses according to the level of economic performance of the province; b) ascertain whether the structural variables on type of area and gender are related to the living standard of the population residing in areas with varying level of economic performance; and c) identify the aspects and the indicators where disparities linked with the structural variables are evident.

The study makes use of the data from the Philippines 1990 Census of Population and Housing of the National Statistical Office collected in May 1990. Two types of data were gathered: Data at the regional level, and data at the household level. A research dissemination forum was undertaken in order to present the findings of the study.

Key words:  basic social services, household heads, population census


Project Director:          Jesusa  Marco
Funding Agency:        Council for the Welfare of Children, Department of Social Welfare and Development

This study reviewed and summarized the status of action programs, empirical studies, including information of data from both published and unpublished sources and other activities on health and nutrition situation of children and women in seven indigenous communities.  Materials and data on the following were obtained:  a) indigenous peoples of the Cordillera, which include groups like the Ibaloi, Kankana-ey, Bontok, Ifugao, Kalinga, Isneg, and Tinggian; b) Agta of Northeastern Luzon; c) Aetas of Mt. Pinatubo; d) Mangyans of Mindoro; e) Batak of Palawan; f) Negritos of Negros Oriental; and g) the Lumads of Southern Mindanao.

The study primarily presents a health situationer, specifically discussing infant (under five years old), child, and maternal mortality incidents and causes, and a nutrition situationer.  Available information on health and nutrition practices, such as dietary patterns and use of services and facilities, are likewise presented.  Desk and field data-gathering were conducted for a month and a half.

On the health and nutrition situation, it was observed that a) the available figures on the vital indicators of health and nutrition are generally low; b) there is continued absence or lack of basic health personnel, facilities, resources, and information in these extremely poor upland groups; and c) there is a serious lack of information on the nutrition status across the groups.  For many of them, poor nutrition, especially among the children and mothers, is often a direct or indirect cause of their common illnesses and deaths; and d) information on these groups is uneven, i.e., more information is available for certain communities than from others.

Data on their nutrition and health behavior patterns show that: a) the indigenous groups’ health and nutrition practices are still very much influenced by their traditions and cultural values; b) the adoption of utilization of outside initiatives appears to be slow; c) they have deficient food intake/diet due primarily to the overall increasing poverty conditions in these areas which are aggravated by the rapid depletion of their natural resources; and d) similar to the data on their health and nutrition status, information on the nutrition and health behavioral patterns is still poorly documented across the groups.

The review concluded that the health and nutrition problems of these and many other indigenous peoples confirm the indigenous peoples’ continued marginalized status in Philippine society.  Their health and nutrition problems should be understood and acted on as a consequence of their economic impoverishment, posing a pressing challenge to both researchers and policy makers who are truly committed to assist in the complex task of upland development.

Key words: indigenous communities, women and children, health and nutrition behavioral patterns, traditions and cultural values


Project Director:          Jesusa M. Marco
Funding Agency:        Philippine Business for Social Progress

This research sought to provide a situationer on the Low Income Upland Communities Project (LIUCP)’s first three years of implementation as well as a validation of implementation issues raised by the United NGOs of Mindoro (UNOM), a six-member NGO coalition of organizations contracted by LIUCP to administer its Watershed Management Units. The study primarily expounds on eight issues based on the experiences of the four NGOs working in the Kaguray, Kabilyan-Kawakat, Malaylay-Bucayao and Pola watersheds. The issues examined were: 1) land tenure, 2) inadequate time for social preparation, 3) lack of response to basic needs, 4) difficult participation of POs and NGOs, 5) lack of process learning, 6) deviation from terms of reference on fund flows/releases, 7) few benefits from consultants, and 8) actions without consultations.

Key words:  low income upland communities, NGOs, Mindoro, watershed management


Project Director:          Ma. Victoria Pilar Sabban
Funding Agency:        Kapwa Upliftment Foundation, Inc.

In 1994, five years after the Kapwa Upliftment Foundation, Inc. initiated an agroforestry component for its Malabog Comprehensive Livelihood and Health Promotion Project in Davao City, it contracted the services of the UPLB Agroforestry Program (UAP) and SDRC to assess the technical and socio-economic aspects of this project. The specific objectives of the assessment were to:  a) assess selected existing agroforestry farms in Malabog and determine whether the technologies being practiced are technically appropriate; b) measure the degree of adoption or non-adoption of the agroforestry promoted by Kapwa; c) determine the principal factors that may have influenced the adoption/non-adoption of agroforestry technologies; and d) formulate recommendations for future actions that may lead to further improvement and sustainability of agroforestry in the project area.

Agroforestry Technologies. Kapwa conducted six phases of Agroforestry training, with each phase focusing on certain agroforestry technologies.  Over 80 percent of the farmers in the project area were agroforestry adoptors.  A substantial number of the farmers adopted at least seven to nine agro-forestry techniques; the majority adopted contour farming because they saw it as beneficial.  Contour hedgerows were adopted because they are a primary requirement for the cooperative’s production loan.  Among the technologies introduced, farm planning and adoption of soil and water conservation technologies had low adoption rates.

Agroforestry Technology Adoption. The study identified several factors that enhanced technology adoption: socio-economic factors, access to inputs and services, and psycho-social factors.  Constraints to technology adoption were also identified. One of the strong points of Kapwa was its provision of technical support services such as the assistance of technicians, availability of dryers and water catchment, as well as incentives to farmer-participants and adoptors.  The study also showed that the most significant factor in the adoption and sustained practice of agroforestry, as highlighted in the farmer case studies, was the farmer’s attitude and perception of value and meaning of the technology to him. 

Based on the results, the study forwarded recommendations along the following areas:  Appropriateness and viability of agroforestry technologies; training; strengthening of technical support services of the Malabog Parish Multi-Purpose Cooperative, Inc. (MPMPCI) and Saloy Farmers Multi-Purpose Cooperative, Inc. (SFMPCI); data requirements for the analysis of economic gains for agroforestry technology adopted, and other support services to sustain agroforestry initiatives.

Key words: agroforestry, livelihood and health promotion, farm planning, soil and water conservation, technology adoption


Project Director:          Pilar Ramos-Jimenez
Funding Agency:        The Ford Foundation

The main concern of this project was to establish a Task Force on Social Science and Reproductive Health, with the initial goal of contributing to a broader re-conceptualization of reproductive health in the Philippines, considering the various determinants of reproductive health and well-being. To accomplish this, the Task Force brought together selected representatives from the social and biomedical sciences, government and non-government organizations, particularly women’s organizations.

Specifically, the objectives of the Task Force were to: a) identify mechanisms that could strengthen the capabilities of social scientists to work in partnership with biomedical scientists; b) find out how specific social science disciplines could enrich the social contents of reproductive health, namely, the theories of gender, ethnicity, political and health economy, community and family systems; c) encourage research and documentation on topics identified as relevant to reproductive health; and d) disseminate research findings, ideas, and discussion outputs in seminars, workshops and other fora.

Key words:  reproductive health, social and biomedical sciences, research and documentation


Project Director:          Trinidad S. Osteria
Funding Agency:        International Development Research Centre

Decentralization has been achieved in different ways by different countries.  In Thailand, strategies were delineated in their Fourth National Development Plan, which decentralized basic economic services to increase rural production and social services to reach the maximum number of people.  Provincial development planning made the province the key unit in sub-national development.  Linkages were developed between the national and provincial plans.  In Indonesia, strategies for rural development assumed two forms: One was embodied in the sectoral development strategy through projects that cut across provinces, and the other was through budget allocation where subsidies were allotted to the local governments to implement specific projects they selected.  In Vietnam, the economic renovation period known as Doi Moi gave impetus to countryside initiatives in land utilization, production organization, and social welfare.  Local and regional needs are identified by the local governments.

The workshop examined the key issues in the decentralization experiences of selected countries in Asia and, subsequently, developed a regional research proposal to look into decentralization and its impact on human welfare.

The critical issues in decentralization examined were: a)   philosophy and implementation of decentralized schemes in the social sector in the countries concerned; b)   problems in linking policy goals and program implementation; c) basic elements crucial in the success or failure of the selected programs; d) revisions needed to facilitate decentralized development management; and e) research issues that can be addressed through communal deliberation and action.

The workshop was held from December 1-3, 1993 and was participated in by researchers from Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Each participant prepared a country situation analysis. 

Key words:  decentralization, basic economic services, development planning, policy goals, budget allocation, land utilization, social welfare



Project Director:          Trinidad S. Osteria
Funding Agency:        Department of Health

This study undertaken for HAMIS focused on the awardees’ organizational set-up and management of health care delivery systems, community involvement, factors that contribute to the sustainability of the project, project’s experiences with the HAMIS contest, and its utilization and management of the HAMIS award money.  It employed the case study method, which used two data-gathering techniques:  Review of existing project documents, and key informant interview.

The 10 HAMIS awardees who were the subjects of this study were selected on the basis of three main categories: a) community-based health projects managed by non-government organizations to serve the urban poor; b) projects advocating herbal cure as an alternative strategy; and c) innovative special health concern. 

Among the findings of the study are: a) Two factors perceived to be contributory to the projects’ sustainability were the people’s support for the project and the dedication and commitment of the project staff, community leaders and supporters;  b) The major problem encountered by the projects was insufficient funding for activities, which resulted in shortage of medical supplies and manpower; c) Major forms of health intervention conducted by the projects can be classified into five types: 1) provision of medical services and medicine; 2) nutrition rehabilitation; 3) health information and education; 4) promotion and production of herbal medication; and 5) tuberculosis control; and d) In terms of management, the organizational set-up of the projects followed the traditional mode, with decision-making made largely by top management and executed by the staff and volunteers; planning was done whenever necessary and a system of monitoring and evaluating of project activities was evident.

The HAMIS awardees suggested that the contest be continued.  They also proposed that only competent evaluators be allowed to screen the contestants, and that content criteria and mechanics be clearly stated.

Findings from the case studies suggest the following implications concerning health care management:  a) the development of economic programs as an integral component of health programs among the poor; b) the need for involvement, training and motivation of a greater number of community health workers in delivering primary health care services to broaden area coverage; c) the necessity of undertaking and strengthening community organizing efforts geared toward the formation not only of various economic but also health cooperatives; and d) the allocation of resources for subsidizing more preventive services including family planning.

Key words:  HAMIS contest of the Department of Health, health interventions, non-government organizations, urban poor, project sustainability, motivating community workers




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