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PROCESS DOCUMENTATION IN SELECTED COMMUNITY FORESTRY PROJECT SITES
Project Directors:        Jesusa M. Marco and Ma. Victoria M. Sabban
Funding Agency:        Development Alternatives, Inc.

The Community Forestry Program (CFP) was conceived and launched in 1989 to address the basic problem of access, equity, and disposition of forest resources in a more ecologically-sustainable and participatory approach. In its first critical years, a process documentation research (PDR) was conducted in 1994 in the CFP sites of Labo-Capalonga, Camarines Norte; Mat-i, Claveria, Misamis Oriental; and Dinadiawan, Dipaculao, Aurora.  Specifically, the study sought to: a) document the activities of key actors, i.e. DENR CFP officers and staff, the assisting organization (AO), the people’s organization (PO), and other individuals or institutions (e.g. LGUs) involved in project implementation; b) ascertain community perceptions and expectations of the program; c) identify and substantiate the issues and problems that emerged from the implementation; and d) generate lessons from project experiences that can be used to improve the implementation and expansion of the CFP.

In spite of the array of problems, issues, and concerns, CFP in the three communities is faced with opportunities that are deemed valuable in the efforts to strengthen its implementation and expansion, such as the presence of committed and capable PO leaders, a harmonious relationship among the Program Management Office (PMO)-AO-PO, linkage with LGUs and other support groups, and integration with the ISF.

The study does not provide sufficient data to assess the success of CFP in these communities.  Nevertheless, there were some important lessons gathered from the study, most significantly that the PO cannot do community forest management alone.  It was recommended that the PO engage in a partnership relationship with the assistance of other local groups, government units/agencies and non-government/community or socio-civic groups. Their willingness and collective investments, both material and non-material, to strengthen or build up the PO’s capabilities for sustained forest management would ultimately make community forest management a reality.

Key words: community forest management, participatory approaches, process documentation research, Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)

 

SUPPORT FOR GRADUATE TRAINING AND RESEARCH IN GENDER SEXUALITY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND A TASK FORCE ON SOCIAL SCIENCE AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH
Project Director:          Pilar Ramos-Jimenez
Funding Agency:        The Ford Foundation

During this phase of the project, the Task Force sponsored five major activities—two seminars on reproductive tract infections, a national seminar on improving the capability of health care systems to deal with family violence, a dissemination seminar on abortion, and a workshop on how family violence issues can be integrated in the medical and nursing curricula.

Key words:  reproductive tract infections (RTIs), health care systems, family violence, abortion, medical and nursing curricula

 

SELECTIVE UTILIZATION OF HEALTH SERVICES: DETERMINANTS
OF REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN FERTILITY AND CHILDHOOD MORTALITY IN THE PHILIPPINES

Project Director:          Trinidad S. Osteria
Funding Agency:        East-West Center

In this secondary data analysis of the 1993 National Demographic Survey (NDS), the regional variations in health-seeking behavior that affect infant and childhood mortality and fertility demonstrated by the women (health care seekers) and the health care systems (providers) interacting within a specific geographical context were examined.  Some of the public features of this behavior were extricated, probed, subsequently analyzed, and evaluated in terms of their place and importance.  This provided a way of descriptively summarizing how the women deal with their fertility, the health activity spheres that they link with one another, and the channels that they optimally activate to meet their reproductive health needs.  The questions addressed were the following: (1) Are there regional variations in reproductive health-seeking behavior?; (2) What are the determinants of the observed patterns?; (3) To what extent would the behavioral pattern affect fertility, and childhood mortality?; (4) What key issues can be extricated from the knowledge of the dynamics of interaction between the health system and the women that could provide meaningful policy and program inputs to the regional reproductive health programs?

In assessing regional variations in reproductive indicators, it became clear that poverty levels were linked to the inadequacy of services and their poor utilization. Bicol, Northern, Western, and Southern Mindanao, as well as Eastern Visayas—economically depressed areas—had comparatively high fertility, and childhood mortality.  These regions had high rates of utilization of traditional birth attendants for prenatal care and delivery.  Most of the women delivered at home.  There was a high level of usage of family planning of less effective methods.

The regional inequities indicated that each death or birth had its roots in a complex interplay of economic, social, and cultural factors.  Poverty and culture could put reproductive health care beyond the scope of the people who felt frustrated at the helplessness such barriers imposed. 

The study concluded that there was a need to look at rationality schemes of decision-making pertaining to pregnancy, delivery, and family planning practices in specific regions.  Programmatic recommendations could be formulated to incorporate the women’s behavioral dimension into a reproductive health program that would be planned and implemented by the women with the relevant MCH agencies.

Key words: health-seeking behavior, infant and childhood mortality, traditional birth attendants, family planning

 

AN EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WELFARE AND DEVELOPMENT
Project Director:          Trinidad Osteria
Funding Agency:        Department of Social Welfare and Development

This study undertakes a review and appraisal of the programs of the Department of Social Welfare and Development using a multi-method approach, e.g. document review questionnaire administration and focus group discussions (FGD). These approaches aim to assess the DSWD’s performance in meeting the expressed goals of the Social Reform Agenda (SRA) and Medium Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP).  The study offers an operational framework to manage participation in social welfare and development programs, as well as a general model for the procedural dimension of the process. In essence, the participatory approach in social welfare and development is proffered as a strategy that the Department can adopt to adequately address its goals.

Key words:  program review and appraisal, Social Reform Agenda (SRA), Medium Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP), social welfare and development programs

 

BASIC RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES TRAINING PROGRAM
Project Director:          Trinidad S. Osteria
Funding Agency:        Department of Health

The Center conducted the first to fifth in a series of training programs on basic research for the Department of Health research coordinators. Course content included objective formulation, literature review, framework development, survey methods, qualitative research, data analysis, and report writing.  The participants were asked to develop a research proposal related to their specific tasks and present it in the forum.  The training sessions were held from October 10 to 15, 1994 (I), November 7 to 12, 1994 (II), November 14 to 18, 1994 (III), December 5 to 19, 1994 (IV), and February 20 to 24, 1995 (V), at De La Salle University.  Resource persons were SDRC research associates and staff. Training coordinator was Dr. Osteria with Ma. Elena Bautista as assistant coordinator.

Key words: training programs, Department of Health, survey methods, qualitative research, data analysis

 

DECENTRALIZATION IN THE SOCIAL SECTORS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
IN THE ASIAN REGION

Project Director:          Trinidad S. Osteria
Funding Agency:        International Development Research Centre

Republic Act No. 7160 of the Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991 was signed into law by President Corazon C. Aquino on October 10, 1991, and took effect on January 1 of the following year. Otherwise known as the Local Autonomy Code, the LGC is regarded as one of the more radical laws passed by the Aquino government.  The LGC provides for the meaningful devolution of power to local government units (LGUs). More than this, however, it recognizes the role of the private sector, in particular the people’s organizations (POs) and non-government organizations (NGOs), in local governance.

Specifically, the objectives of this study were to: a) assess differentials in perceptions of decentralization and its implementation in the central and local levels and its effect on the performance of local government units; b) review the roles and responsibilities of the central government, relevant ministries, local government units (provincial, municipal, and village) as well as non-government organizations in the planning and implementation of programs; c) determine the extent and nature of structural linkages in program implementation; d) assess the variability in mechanisms for goal setting and implementation in the three social sectors (education, health, and welfare) in urban and rural areas; e) examine the various forms of support to programs and ways by which the local government units mobilize and extend them; f) assess the extent to which the bureaucratic culture affects the decentralization process; g) evolve indicators for evaluation of processes and outcomes from the providers’ and beneficiaries perspective; and h) examine the prospect of improving effectiveness of decentralized schemes through a multisectoral approach that utilizes an optimum mix of bottom-up and top-bottom planning.

The major findings were summarized to draw inferences as to how decentralized schemes can be adequately formulated in the social sector by highlighting issues of comprehensive coverage, emphasizing sectoral and structural links, and providing a better understanding of the complexities of the decentralization programs in the social sector, nationally and regionally.

Key words: Local Autonomy Code, Aquino government, local government units, decentralization, non-government organizations

 

CULTURAL DUALITY IN SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE: THE CASE
OF THE NIKKEI-FILIPINO-JIN IN DAVAO

Project Director:          Trinidad S. Osteria
Funding Agency:        The Japan Foundation

This research aimed at analyzing the social and cultural dualism in selected Philippine-Japanese communities in Davao. The intermarriage between Japanese settlers in Davao City and the local women, mainly the Bagobos, resulted in a family system that is bicultural while maintaining Filipino traditions. Ties are sustained within certain communities in Japan that seep through the subsequent generations.  Intergenerational adaptation mechanisms to the changing economic environment provide insights into how families and communities survive and maintain their kinship and friendship networks in the country and in Japan.

Specifically, the study aimed to: a) examine the convergence as well as conflicts in the process of cultural assimilation of the descendants of pre-war Japanese immigrants in Davao, including the intergenerational changes that occur with respect to the Filipino and Japanese elements of their character; b) analyze their coping strategies and compare the general and variant patterns of behavior among the Filipino-Japanese descendants; c) study the dynamics and morphology of social organizations and the role of kinship and friendship networks within Davao and with Japan; and d) identify the potential role that the Filipino-Japanese in Davao can play as a crucial link in Philippine-Japan relations.

Key words: social and cultural dualism, Philippine-Japanese communities in Davao, Bagobos, intermarriage, kinship and friendship networks

 

LOCAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAM NGO SUPPORT GRANTS COMPONENT POST-PROGRAM EVALUATION
Project Director:          Trinidad S. Osteria
Funding Agency:        Philippine Business for Social Progress

This study is an evaluation of 11 projects supported under the Local Development Assistance Program (LDAP) of the Philippine Business for Social Progress (PBSP) sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). It covers an assessment of the LDAP supported initiatives, as well as their contributions to democratization and sustainable local development, as envisioned in the 1991 Local Government Code (LGC).

The study utilized the categorization of the five levels of partnership listed in the volume on capability building (Breaking Ground V: 1994): a) consultative, b) coordinative, c) complementary, d) collaborative, and e) critical. Factors that affect NGO-PO intervention in local governance include: orientation or attitude towards local governance, strength of individual NGOs/POs, criteria/procedures for selection/representation, and cohesiveness of the NGO/PO sector.

Categorized under the general classification, the projects were found to have reached only the third level of partnership—complementary, where the two sectors shared a common program framework but had distinct and separate initiatives.  They needed to go to the higher levels of collaboration (agreement to work together under a common vision, with common objectives and plans of action and appropriate and institutionalized mechanisms to facilitate delivery of services), or critical partnership (both groups view each other as indispensable, working together on a more strategic long-term arrangement and sharing equally in the decision-making and policy-formulation process).

The study found that a more bottom-up approach in consulting people’s needs for projects has to be developed in order to implement projects that are people-oriented as well as development-oriented. Resources from the USAID and other funding institutions, however, are necessary to initiate as well as sustain such development projects.  Projects that effectively build up the capability not only of local government officials and staff members, but also government agency personnel and staff, are needed to operationalize the provisions of the LGC towards decentralization and democratization.

Key words: Local Government Code, decentralization, capability building, NGO-PO intervention, democratization

 

VALIDATION OF THE 1993 CONTRACEPTIVE PREVALENCE SURVEY
Project Director:          Trinidad S. Osteria
Funding Agency:        Department of Health

A nationwide Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (CPS) was undertaken in 1993 by the Department of Health to assess the national level of contraceptive use and its variability by geographical area and method. There were 10,231 women interviewed for the study.  Levels of contraceptive usage were assessed for the constituted 45 provinces of the various regions in the country.

Concerns were raised regarding the validity of the results of the CPS, considering the marked discrepancy in the obtained and projected CPRs in certain provinces. A validation of the 1993 CPS was thus undertaken in the last quarter of 1994—about a year from the conduct of the previous survey. This study aimed to assess the mechanism for data collection and validate the results of the CPS in provinces where the results seemed unrealistic or questionable.  This was undertaken through an interview of those who planned and undertook the survey, and a subsample of married women in the reproductive age group (15 to 44), drawn from among the respondents of the previous survey.

The tasks involved: a) documentation of the various stages of the cluster survey to assess the adequacy of implementation; b) a critical analysis of the procedures as implemented to identify areas of weakness; c) estimation of the accuracy of contraceptive prevalence rates derived from the survey; d) estimation of method specific underreporting/overreporting rates; e) estimation of correction factors for misreporting; f) identification of factors affecting the estimates of CPS that will explain the results; and g) recommendations for the improvement of data collection and methodology.

Results revealed marked differentials in perceptions regarding use-rates of high risk and non-risk women.  Likewise, inter-regional and provincial differentials were noted in terms of the duration and content of training. At the field level, the decision was left largely to the field workers.  There were uneven responses regarding the method of cluster site selection, determination of sampling interval, use of table random numbers, and substitution of cluster sites.  Likewise, the data revealed discrepancies in the percentages for each variable source.

Key words: contraceptive use, contraceptive prevalence survey, data collection mechanism, women of reproductive age

 

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONTRACEPTIVE USE AND HEALTH SEEKING BEHAVIOR OF FILIPINO WOMEN
Project Directors:        Trinidad S. Osteria and Cristina Rodriguez
Funding Agency:        Family Health International

This study, through a secondary analysis of the 1993 NDS data, examined the possible behavioral patterns (contraceptive use, preventive, curative, and promotive health practices) that are related to the women’s (or their family’s) socio-economic situation (educational attainment, occupation or employment, and presence of sanitation facilities). Women were categorized into three age groups: 15-24, 25-35, and 35-44. Likewise, urban-rural differentials were delineated. The findings of this study provided some insights about the impact of contraceptive use on women’s or their family’s welfare.

The trends determined by the data showed a higher fertility among ever users than never users of contraceptives, an observation attributed to higher sexual activity and fecundability of contraceptive users.  This difference was narrowed down and reversed in specific age groups after fecundability was controlled.  Ever married women used contraceptives, particularly artificial and natural methods, to space births rather than to limit the number of children.  Surgical methods are more likely to be used when these women have already had the desired number of children.

The findings of the study confirmed that contraceptive users are more educated than never users, as shown by the higher proportion of women with a higher level of education who were ever users.  It also implied that contraceptive use allowed the ever married women from the urban and rural areas to work outside their homes.  Since child care demands the full attention of mothers at home, women engaged in agriculture comprise a lower percentage of contraceptive users. The nature of economic activity in agriculture allows women to stay home longer and attend to the demands of child care. Therefore, contraceptive use is linked to a myriad of positive health-seeking behaviors that eventually lead to reduced morbidity and mortality.

Key words: contraceptive use, women’s health practices, birth spacing, agriculture economic activity

 

POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT DYNAMICS, POVERTY AND THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN ASIA AND PACIFIC REGION: COUNTRY CASE STUDIES AND REGIONAL SYNTHESIS (PHASE 1)
Project Director:          Trinidad S. Osteria
Funding Agency:        U. N. Economic and Social Communication for Asia and the Pacific

The Expert Group Meeting on Analysis of Linkages Between Population Factors and Sustainable Development was convened by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) from August 15 to 18, 1994 in Chiang Mai, Thailand.  The main purpose of this meeting was to undertake a situational analysis of the interlinkages between the population factors, environment, and sustainable development based on in-country available information.  The preparation of the country profiles was accomplished through the macrolevel country study, and the microlevel community case study highlighting the impact of population growth and distribution on resources, environment, and development.  As such, the profile improves the understanding of mutual relationship between population and environmental variables, and their implications for sustainable development.  Likewise, it enhances the awareness and appreciation among policy-makers, planners, and community leaders of these interlinkages to enable them to formulate relevant policies and programs.

For the long term, the project sought to: 1) develop the data/information and knowledge base of interaction among population environment variables that will provide a scientific basis for decision-making and formulation of population policies and programmes as integral parts of over-all economic and social development planning and policy; 2) improve the understanding of mutual inter-relationships between population and environment variables and their implications for sustainable development; and 3) improve the process of integrated planning, policy formulation, and program development and implementation, giving due consideration to the population-environment-development nexus.

The study recommended that, for sustainable human development to succeed in the Philippines, i.e., the challenge of reconciling capacity for growth, the opportunities and constraints that arise in interactions with the natural environment must be faced squarely. What must be looked into closely is the transformation of the management problem by unprecedented increases in the rate, scale, and complexities in the interactions. People in the Philippines must learn to relate local development to the national level, and eventually to a global environmental perspective. In the end, programs and strategies must translate into action, if they are to have any impact at all.

Key words: population, environment, and sustainable development; economic and social development planning, policy formulation

 

DEPOT MEDROXY-PROGESTERONE ACETATE (DMPA) FOLLOW-UP SURVEY
Project Director:          Trinidad Osteria
Funding Agency:        Population Council, Manila

Interviews with 48 trained DMPA providers in some of the sampled health facilities located in Laguna and Pangasinan provinces, Quezon City and Baguio City selected by the Population Council for the follow-up survey were conducted by the staff of DLSU-SDRC and Xavier University’s Research Institute for Mindanao Culture (RIMCU) during the acceptors’ survey period. DLSU-SDRC prepared a report on the results of the interviews for Luzon, while RIMCU prepared the interviews in the Visayas and Mindanao. The interview questions covered information on the health facility, background information on the interviewee/respondent, their perceived roles of DMPA providers, their assessment of DMPA training, problems they encountered in DMPA service delivery, clients’ major complaints about DMPA, and providers’ attitudes with regard to DMPA use.

Key words: DMPA use, health facilities, service delivery



 

 

 

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